Europe and the USA were the great powers of the 19th Century, driven by revolutions – the American Revolution, the French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution.
Cities became crowded and the gap between the rich and the poor widened. Life was becoming more complex in general. Romantic, picturesque gardens and parks became a necessity to escape all this.
Public parks began to be built that offered pleasures to all that previously only the wealthy could afford.
Joseph Paxton's Birkenhead Park on Merseyside inspired Frederick Law Olmsted's Central Park in New York.
Many see Olmsted as the first modern landscape architect – with him the contemporary field of landscape architecture was born.
Central Park, New York